The ultimate goal for children and youth in foster care is for them to transition to safe and legally permanent families. As youth age, however, they are less likely than younger children in foster care to achieve legal permanency. Youth who exit care without achieving permanency are at risk for a number of negative outcomes, including lower income, poorer health, and higher arrest rates. Agencies can and should seek legal permanency for youth, and there are various strategies for doing so. Additionally, agencies can help youth establish and maintain meaningful connections with caring adults who can provide guidance and support. Resources include State and local examples.
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Child Welfare Information Gateway
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Defining and Achieving Permanency Among Older Youth in Foster Care
Salazara, Jones, Amemiya, Cherry, Brown, Catalano, & Monahan (2018)
Children and Youth Services Review, 87
Presents the findings of a study on how youth define permanency, how much progress have youth made in achieving permanency, and what outcomes are associated with permanency. The study concludes with implications for the field.
Promoting Permanency for Teens: A 50 State Review of Law and Policy (PDF - 3,154 KB)
Johnson, Speiglman, Mauldon, Grimm, & Perry (2018)
National Center for Youth Law
Explores State policy and practices on permanency and transitioning to adulthood for youth in foster care. The report concludes with recommendations for permanency standards for States.
Supporting Sustained Permanency [Webinar]
Casey Family Programs (2018)
Offers multiple perspectives and approaches on promoting sustained permanency. The webinar is presented in two parts and provides additional resources and materials on sustained permanency.
Youth Permanency Toolkit
National Center for Child Welfare Excellence at the Silberman School of Social Work (2014)
Provides a web-based toolkit on the history of youth permanency, current definitions, developing appropriate services, and five core components for policy and practice. The toolkit includes an organizational self-study, for child welfare agencies.
Destination Family: Achieving Permanency for Children and Youth Through Relationship Development Matching
National American Council on Adoptable Children
Outlines a program that prepares children who have barriers to adoption, such as emotional or developmental disabilities or being part of a large sibling group, and supports the family after the adoption is finalized to improve permanency.
Partnerships for Permanency in Sacramento County
Casey Family Programs (2017)
Details the use and outcomes of permanency case reviews in Sacramento County, CA, through the Casey-Sacramento partnership. The report concludes with ideas for improvement in permanency practices.
The Plummer Youth Promise: Infusing Permanency in Residential Care (PDF - 159 KB)
Lister & McLaughlin (2018)
North American Council on Adoptable Children
Describes a child welfare organization in Massachusetts that provides young people in their therapeutic residential program with specific goals designed to help them achieve permanency. The article includes tips for other organizations to get started in implementing practices to support permanency.
Promoting Supportive, Lasting Adult Connections for Older Youth in Foster Care: Good Shepherd Services’ Permanency Pact Program (PDF - 2,847 KB)
Good Shepherd Services (2018)
Shares context and background surrounding permanency outcomes in New York City that led to developing the Permanency Pact, a program that connects youth ages 16 and older with a supportive adult while they are in care and after exiting care.
Providing and Supporting Permanence for Youth
Alameda County Social Services Agency (2012)
Provides information on programs and services that support permanency for youth in Alameda County, CA.