Passage of the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act—and the resulting implementation of the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program—resulted in child welfare reforms to enhance outcomes for children and families receiving services from both aid systems. The following resources describe child welfare reforms related to TANF and include State and local examples.
A Decade of Welfare Reform: Facts and Figures (PDF - 48 KB)
Urban Institute (2008)
Examines the first decade of welfare reform legislation from the experiences of low-income families.
Self-Sufficiency Research Clearinghouse
Connects research to policy and practice and is designed to enhance collaboration and partnerships among researchers, policymakers, and practitioners representing cross-disciplinary areas.
TANF Policy, Services, and Benefits
Self-Sufficiency Research Clearinghouse
Provides access to this research and other resources relating to TANF policies and services.
Challenges Faced by Rural TANF Recipients: Regional Differences in the Outcomes of a Lifeskills Program
Zunz, Wichroski, Hebert, & Hebert
Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 12(1), 2005
Analyzes the socioeconomic disparities of a State's rural and nonrural counties and describes differences in outcomes between geographically diverse participants in a statewide welfare-to-work life skills program.
Implementing the Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) Changes in the Deficit Reduction Act: 'Win-Win' Solutions for Families and States (PDF - 668 KB)
Center on Budget and Policy Priorities & Center for Law and Social Policy (2006)
Provides information to State policymakers, human service agency staff, policy analysts, and others about strategies that can help States as they consider policy options for the next phase of welfare reform.
New Hope for Children and Families: Five-Year Results of a Program to Reduce Poverty and Reform Welfare
Outlines the results of the New Hope Project, implemented in Milwaukee, to offer benefits to low-income inner-city residents who were willing to work fulltime with an earnings supplement, subsidized health insurance, subsidized child care, and referral to a wage-paying community service job. (PDF - 1,060 KB)
A Tale of Ten Cities: Creating Welfare Reform Programs That Make a Difference (PDF - 1,230 KB)
Office of Family Studies, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department Health and Human Services (2007)
Highlights lessons learned and strategies from 10 cities that implemented reform programs to meet the needs of families receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF).
The Two Worlds of Welfare Reform in Illinois: Fourth Annual Report from the Illinois Families Study (PDF - 2,700 KB)
University Consortium on Welfare Reform (2004)
Informs State legislators, administrators, and other policymakers about experiences of Illinois families and children in the welfare system after major reforms were implemented in 1997. The report recommends program improvements based on strategies that were effective in promoting work and self-sufficiency.
Working Together for Children and Families: Where Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) and Child Welfare Meet (PDF - 110 KB)
Berrick, Frame, Langs, & Varchol
Journal of Policy Practice, 5(2/3), 2006
Examines the link between family poverty and child maltreatment, and the policy levers that can be employed to inhibit or promote child and family well-being within the context of welfare reform. The article outlines California's experience with collaborations among welfare and child welfare, and the special challenges agencies face in attempting to streamline services.
Between Two Systems: Children in Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) Child-Only Cases With Relative Caregivers
Gibbs, Kasten, Bir, Duncan, & Hoover
Children and Youth Services Review, 26, 2006
Explores the service needs and well-being of children in TANF child-only cases with relative caregivers based on national survey data and case studies in five States. The analysis suggests that these children compare favorably to children in kinship and foster care on many measures of well-being, but some indications of behavioral and mental health problems were seen.
Child Welfare: Continuity and Change (PDF - 100 KB)
Urban Institute (2005)
In Assessing the New Federalism: Eight Years Later
Examines how children have fared under Federal welfare reforms made in 1996, trends in State child welfare financing, and the effectiveness of kinship care.
Findings from the Milwaukee Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) Applicant Study
Courtney & Dworsky (2006)
Explores how welfare reform might affect child welfare services involvement among welfare-recipient families.
Shoring up the Child Welfare-TANF Link (PDF - 103 KB)
Policy Briefs, 7, 2002
Discusses the impact of welfare reform efforts on families who receive both TANF and child welfare services.