Dually adjudicated children and youth are involved in both the child welfare and juvenile justice systems. These two systems often operate separately, leaving dually adjudicated children who experience behavioral health challenges less likely to experience continuity in their care and more likely to experience victimization and future involvement with the justice system. Recent research and policy efforts have sought to increase coordination between the juvenile justice and child welfare systems. Below, find resources and information, including State and local examples, about legal issues for youth who are involved in both systems.
Building A Brighter Future for Youth With Dual Status: A Policy Roadmap Forward (PDF - 2,298 KB)
The Children's Partnership & Robert F. Kennedy Children’s Action Corp (2018)
Offers three recommendations to improve service delivery and outcomes for child welfare and juvenile justice-involved youth: improve cross-system collaboration, integrate trauma-informed care approaches beyond the child welfare and juvenile justice systems, and adopt improved technology. The document is intended for professionals in child welfare, juvenile justice, education, behavioral health, and other disciplines that work with dual-status youth.
Crossover Youth Practice Model [Video]
Center for Juvenile Justice Reform (2017)
Outlines the goals of the crossover youth practice model, including reducing the number of dually involved youth, youth in out-of-home care, and youth in congregate care and reducing disproportionality within each system.
Dual-Status Youth and Federal Initiatives: A Snapshot
National Juvenile Justice Network (2016)
Defines dual-status youth, the challenges they face, and how clearer pathways out of the system must be created so that youth who enter can move on and thrive in their communities. The resource outlines Federal initiatives focused on dual-status youth, Federal legislation, links to additional information, and more.
Improving Multisystem Collaboration for Crossover Youth
Explores outcomes for youth who interact with both the child welfare and juvenile justice systems and provides evidence in support of an improved policy approach that focuses on system collaboration. The paper argues that policymakers and practitioners should use research to alter the negative outcomes for these vulnerable youth.
OJJDP Dual System Youth Design Study: Summary of Findings and Recommendations for Pursuing a National Estimate of Dual System Youth: Final Technical Report (PDF - 5,409 KB)
Herz & Dierkhising (2018)
California State University, Los Angeles, School of Criminal Justice & Criminalistics
Examines the gap in knowledge about how child welfare and juvenile justice systems collaborate and share information in U.S. jurisdictions.
Understanding Foster, Juvenile Justice, and Crossover Youth
American Youth Policy Forum
Highlights national, State, and local research and data on young people involved in the child welfare and/or juvenile justice systems and provides graphical snapshots on the education and workforce outcomes of this population and the challenges they face.
When Systems Collaborate: How Three Jurisdictions Improved Their Handling of Dual-Status Cases
National Center for Juvenile Justice (2015)
Highlights approaches taken by three jurisdictions that worked to improve their handling of youth cases involved in the child welfare and juvenile justice systems. The report provides examples related to front-end screening and identification, child welfare case coordination, and reentry and community support.
State and local examples
Crossover Kids: The Intersection of Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice
Freitas & Freitas (2016)
Section Review, November/December
Describes the handling of cases of children in Massachusetts who are involved with both child welfare and juvenile justice. These youth face increased barriers to success, but meaningful interventions may improve their chances of positive transitions into adulthood.
Report of the Subcommittee on Dual-Status Youth: Addressing the Needs of Some of the Commonwealth's Most Vulnerable Citizens (PDF - 1,485 KB)
Dykema, Dubois, Ferguson, Gregoire, Hecht, & Keenan (2017)
Massachusetts Subcommittee on Dual-Status Youth
Describes the experiences of dual-status youth in Massachusetts and outlines the continuum of services that supports them. The report recommends ways to better support these youth and how to make improvements in the State.