Resources outlining the unique permanency planning needs of and services for children and youth with disabilities. Includes State and local examples.
An Examination of the Impact of Permanency on Young Adults' Special Education Experiences
Hill & Koester (2015)
Children & Schools, , 3, (37, )
Examines the impact of adoption on the educational experiences of older youth with disabilities who were adopted from the child welfare system.
Foster Care Outcomes for Children with Intellectual Disability
Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, , 4, (54, )
Explores outcomes for youth in foster care with intellectual disabilities and the implications for interagency collaboration.
Out-of-Home Placement for Children and Adolescents With Disabilities
Friedman and Kalichman (2014)
Focuses on children and youth with chronic and complex health conditions who have intellectual and developmental disabilities and their placement when out of the home.
Out-of-Home Placement for Children and Adolescents With Disabilities—Addendum: Care Options for Children and Adolescents With Disabilities and Medical Complexity (PDF - 709 KB)
Friedman and Norwood (2016)
Explores placement options for children and youth with significant intellectual and developmental disabilities and where they should be cared for if not by their families in a home environment.
Permanency and Placement Planning for Older Youth With Disabilities in Out-of-Home Placement (PDF - 426 KB)
Children and Youth Services Review, 34(8)
Examines the experience of older youth with disabilities in foster care, focusing on placement stability, permanency planning, and placement outcomes.
Permanency and the Foster Care System
Lockwood & Christian & Friedman (2015)
Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care, , 10, (45, )
Reviews the state of permanency in the foster care system and the risks for certain populations of youth, including those with disabilities.
Predictors of Foster Care Exits to Permanency: A Competing Risks Analysis of Reunification, Guardianship, and Adoption
Children and Youth Services Review, 33(6)
Explores permanency outcomes and which characteristics, including needs relating to disabilities, are important predictors of exit to three types of permanency outcomes: reunification, guardianship, and adoption.
State and local examples
Achieving Exits to Permanency for Children in Long Term Care (PDF - 860 KB)
Carnochan, Lee & Austin (2013)
Journal of Evidence-Based Social Work, 10
Presents a literature review focused on achieving permanency for youth who have been in foster care for long periods of time, including an examination of factors associated with long stays in care.
A Guide to Permanency Options for Youth (PDF - 1,023 KB)
Alameda County Social Services Agency, Department of Children and Family Services (2018
Provides information to support child welfare staff and caregivers work with youth in extended foster care in Alameda County, California, who are interested in learning about permanency options.
Practice Guide for Concurrent Permanency Planning (PDF - 358 KB)
Minnesota Department of Human Services (2006)
Promotes best practices in permanency planning for youth in foster care in the State of Minnesota by describing a step-by-step approach to working with families in the child welfare system.
Promoting the Well-Being of Children, Youth and Families in Child Welfare (PDF - 372 KB)
New York State Office of Children and Family Services (2013)
Explores an integrated approach used in the State of New York to emphasize the safety, permanency, and well-being of youth in foster care, including those with intellectual and developmental disabilities.
State Agencies Addressing Disabilities
Center for Parent Information and Resources (2017)
Maintains a listing of State-level offices that can help with information about and assistance with disability issues.