Tribal child welfare in the United States over the past century has a history of continuous violations against Tribal people in the name of "helping." At its best, it has been fraught with inequities; at its worst, it has involved Federal Government policy that permitted the forced removal of thousands of Indian children from their homes, families, and Tribes for placement in boarding schools. The removal of children led to generations of Indian children growing to adulthood without the benefit of parenting or the support of their families or Tribes. This has contributed to a great level of distrust and historical trauma that continue to affect American Indian and Alaska Native families and to impact child welfare work. Find resources in this section related to the historical, political, and cultural background of Tribal-State relations.
Arctic Winds Healing Winds: Leadership for Results [Video]
Capacity Building Center for Tribes (2017)
Explains key takeaways from the Arctic Winds Healing Winds nonprofit based in Alaska. The nonprofit emphasizes enhancing and strengthening leadership capacity around story trauma.
A History We All Should Know
North Carolina Division of Social Services & Family and Children's Resource Program
Children's Services Practice Notes, 11(2), 2006
Provides a brief history of U.S. Government policies toward American Indians and discusses the impact of these policies on child welfare.
Flying the Coop: ICWA and the Welfare of Indian Children
Stark & Stark (2006)
In Outsiders Within: Writing on Transracial Adoption
Traces the history of child welfare policy relating to American Indians, including the removal of children from their homes.
Historical Trauma and Microaggressions: A Framework for Culturally-Based Practice
Children, Youth and Family Consortium's Children's Mental Health Program (2010)
Captures the presentation of Dr. Karina Walters titled "Historical Trauma, Microaggressions, and Identity: A Framework for Culturally-Based Practice," which was part of the Center for Excellence in Children's Mental Health Lessons from the Field seminar series. This is the second issue in a series focused on trauma and child welfare systems.
History Timeline: Selected Dates in Indian History and Indian Education (PDF - 520 KB)
Uintah Basin Teaching American History Project
Provides an overview of the impact of U.S. Government policies toward American Indians from the colonial period through 2005.
National Congress of American Indians
Provides resources to help Tribal governments protect their treaty and sovereign rights and to inform the public and Congress about the governmental rights of American Indians and Alaska Natives.