The following resources address how to ensure cultural competence when working with relative or kinship caregivers, including State and local examples.
African American Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Implications for Social Work (PDF - 62 KB)
Journal of Sociology and Social Work, 3(2)
Explores the experiences of African American grandmothers raising grandchildren in rural areas, including their challenges and needs, financial difficulties, limited support, transportation difficulties, and other concerns. The study shows that developing education programs and other supports would have a positive influence on these kinship caregivers.
Futures Without Violence (2016)
Encourages child welfare and other professionals to consider the unique needs of families, including kinship care families, and provide culturally specific responses to violence.
Culturally Sensitive Trauma-Informed Care
Health Care Toolbox (2014)
Defines culturally sensitive trauma-informed care, which refers to the capacity of professionals to effectively provide a trauma-informed assessment and intervention that acknowledges, respects, and integrates patients' and families' cultural values, beliefs, and practices. The website also lists resources for kinship families who want to learn about cultural competence in health-care practice.
Culture and Health Literacy: Tools for Cross-Cultural Communication and Language Access Can Help
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2017)
Describes how organizations, including child welfare agencies working with kinship families, can increase communication effectiveness when they recognize and work to bridge cultural differences that may contribute to miscommunication.
Culture, Caregiving, and Health: Exploring the Influence of Culture on Family Caregiver Experiences
Pharr, Francis, Terry, & Clark (2014)
ISRN Public Health, 2014
Examines how the caregiving experience differs among cultural/ethnic groups and how cultural values and norms influence caregiving. The study highlights the culturally perceived mandate to provide care in the African, Asian, and Hispanic American cultures.
Enhancing Cultural Competence in Social Service Agencies: A Promising Approach to Serving Diverse Children and Families (PDF - 803 KB)
Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation (2014)
Provides an overview of the cultural competence of organizations serving children and families, including kinship families, from diverse ethnic and racial backgrounds and offers considerations for improving services.
Grandparent Caregiving Among Rural African Americans in a Community in the American South: Challenges to Health and Well-Being (PDF - 239 KB)
Clottey, Scott, & Alfonso (2015)
Rural and Remote Health, 15(3313)
Discusses the increasing number of grandparents in the rural United States serving as primary caregivers for their grandchildren and focuses on low-income, African American women from the South who are overrepresented in this group.
Intersections of Poverty, Geography, and Custodial Grandparent Caregiving in Appalachia (PDF - 1,065 KB)
GrandFamilies: The Contemporary Journal of Research, Practice and Policy, 3(1)
Explores grandparents as kinship caregivers in central Appalachia and how recent economic changes have affected poverty rates in this area.
Kinship Care and Immigrant Families (PDF - 1,485 KB)
Focus: Newsletter of the Foster Family-Based Treatment Association, 20(1)
Examines kinship care and immigrant families in an article found on page 2 of the newsletter. The article discusses the strengths of Latino and other immigrant kinship families due to their social networks, which include both close and distant relatives and friends that may be considered family, such as godparents.
Latino Families in the Nexus of Child Welfare, Welfare Reform, and Immigration Policies: Is Kinship Care a Lost Opportunity? (PDF - 96 KB)
Ayón, Aisenberg, & Cimino (2013)
Social Work, 58(1)
Describes the need for culturally appropriate child welfare services for Latino kinship caregivers and reviews kinship care difficulties, barriers for Latino families involved in the child welfare system, recommendations for improvement, and more.
Parenthood in the Twenty-First Century: African American Grandparents as Surrogate Parents (PDF - 163 KB)
Bertera and Crewe (2013)
Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 23
Discusses the trend of African American grandparents serving as parents, their assets, and their challenges in parenting. The article also addresses grandparenting in this century and implications for the surrogate parenting by African Americans relative to social work education, research, and policy.
Working With African American Adoptive, Foster, and Kinship Families (PDF - 4,772 KB)
Assists child welfare staff in their work with African American foster, adoptive, and kinship families with diverse beliefs, values, and socioeconomic categories.
Increasing LGBT Cultural Competency
CASA (Court-Appointed Social Advocates) for Children (2013)
Gives information on how child welfare organizations can improve their recruitment and retention of volunteers and resource families in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and how to enhance LGBT cultural competency within the child welfare system.
Partnering With Latino and Immigrant Families: Resources and Suggestions for Child Welfare Professionals (PDF - 1,465 KB)
North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services (2015)
Discusses working with Latino and/or immigrant families for child welfare professionals in North Carolina and includes information on topics such as educating and recruiting foster families, using culturally sensitive recruitment, working with Hispanic foster families, using translators, and more.
The Ties That Bind: Strengthening, and Reducing Racial Disparities in, Kinship Foster Care in Massachusetts (PDF - 1,162 KB)
Massachusetts Law Reform Institute
Identifies ways to break barriers when it comes to licensing kinship foster caregivers, engaging kin in cases, and building trust, especially in communities of color in Massachusetts.