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Zainah is a 23-year-old who recently migrated from Syria with her 3-year-old son, Adnan, and husband, Sayid. The family was forced out of their homeland due to war over three years ago. Initially, they were able to stay with relatives and then spent almost 18 months in a refugee camp. They are newly settled in Minneapolis where they have some extended family and are connected to the broader Syrian community. Zainah is not working and spends her days at home with Adnan, though recently she has been leaving the house to meet other young mothers from the Syrian community who gather at each other’s homes during the days.

As Zainah has been spending more time with other mothers with young children, she has identified concerns about Adnan’s slow speech development. Adnan becomes sad and gets frustrated when he cannot express himself. Zainah’s friend, Sarah, who also has a three-year-old daughter, was the first person she talked to about her worries and has encouraged Zainah to take Adnan to the doctor to be evaluated. She has been reluctant to because she struggles with English, is uncomfortable talking with the doctor, and overall finds the health care and social service system overwhelming. Sarah, who has been in the United States since she was 7, speaks English fluently. She has offered to go with Zainah to the doctors to serve as a translator.

Which Protective Factors Are Present In The Scenario?