Research has shown that children and youth from minority groups are disproportionately represented in out-of-home care. This section provides information about promoting permanency for children and youth from specific minority groups.
- Permanency for American Indian children and youth
- Permanency for African-American children and youth
- Permanency for Hispanic children and youth
California Partners for Permanency (CAPP)
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Children’s Bureau (2015)
Provides an overview of and materials for a model that supports positive permanency outcomes for African-American and American Indian children in out-of-home care.
Tribal STAR, San Diego State University School of Social Work, Academy for Professional Excellence (2018)
Explains the passage of legislation that allows Tribal customary adoption for American Indian children in foster care in California. Factsheets for county and Tribal Indian Child Welfare Act social workers on Tribal customary adoptions, sample Tribal customary adoption orders, and answers to frequently asked questions about Tribal customary adoptions are also provided.
Customary Adoption (PDF - 72 KB)
Capacity Building Center for Tribes (2016)
Provides resources and information on customary adoption, including factsheets for county and Tribal social workers.
Foster Care and Adoption
National Indian Child Welfare Association (2018)
Provides bibliographies of resources on a variety of topics, including customary adoptions, first nations adoptions, identity development, the Indian Adoption Project, outcomes for transracial adoption of Native American children, and general Tribal child welfare.
Literature & Resource Review Characteristics of Successful Foster, Adoptive and/or Kinship Caregivers of American Indian, Alaska Native, First Nations and Native Hawaiian (AIAN/FN/NH) Children and Suggested Training Themes for these Parents (PDF - 2,162 KB)
National Training & Development Curriculum for Foster and Adoptive Parents (2018)
Identifies characteristics of a successful foster, adoptive, and/or kinship caregivers of AIAN/FN/NH youth as well as suggested training themes for these parents. The characteristics and suggested training themes, and their associated reference material, are outlined in this report.
Recruiting Families for Native American Children (PDF - 132 KB)
National Resource Center for Diligent Recruitment at AdoptUSKids (2015)
Provides information, strategies, and key considerations for planning and implementing family recruitment, development, and support programs.
Strategies for Successfully Recruiting and Retaining Preferred-Placement Foster Homes for American Indian Children (PDF - 7,415 KB)
Casey Family Programs (2017)
Highlights strategies and recommendations to increase the number of foster parents for American Indian Children that reflect children’s culture and comply with the Indian Child Welfare Act.
Changing Course: Improving Outcomes for African American Males Involved With Child Welfare Systems
Miller, Farrow, Meltzer, & Notkin (2014)
Provides statistics on prevalence and age distribution, placement experiences, and exit patterns of African-American men in the child welfare system, as well as strategies to improve outcomes at the system and individual level. The study concludes with implications for the field.
Relational Permanence and Psychological Well-Being Among African American Adolescents in Foster Care (PDF - 536 KB)
Williams-Butler, Ryan, McLoyd, Schulenberg, & Davis-Kean (2018)
Journal of Child and Family Studies
Presents the findings of a study on the association between having continuous supportive relationships for African-American adolescents in the foster care system and psychological well-being.
Latino Families Are a Valuable Resource for Waiting Children
Quintanilla, Correa-Romero, Alvarez-Blasco (2012)
North American Council on Adoptable Children
Presents policies and practices for engaging more Latino families, including recruitment and retention of families and respecting diversity.