Sometimes, the best family for a child does not live in the same State as the child. The Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children (ICPC), established in 1960, establishes procedures for ensuring the safety and stability of placements of children across State lines. Still, placement across State lines can still present difficulties and delays. The resources below discuss strategies for interjurisdictional placement, including ways to overcome barriers to finding the best families for children, wherever they live. Resources also include State and local examples.
Adoption Assistance by State
Association of Administrators of the Interstate Compact on Adoption and Medical Assistance & Child Welfare Information Gateway
Provides answers to 13 questions regarding State policies on adoption assistance and State contacts for adoption, postadoption, and medical assistance.
Agency Readiness Assessment for Interjurisdictional Placements (PDF - 91 KB)
National Resource Center for Diligent Recruitment at AdoptUSKids (2012)
Provides a self-assessment form to help agencies identify their existing capacity for supporting and making interjurisdictional placements. The form focuses on the areas of training, system supports, evaluation, and recruitment.
Association of Administrators of the Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children (AAICPC)
Includes regulations, publications, and papers about ICPC, as well as the ICPC State Pages site, which provides State-by-State information about ICPC.
Guide to the Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children (PDF - 220 KB)
American Public Human Services Association (2002)
Explains the key provisions of the law, including compact administration, recognition of placements under the compact, procedures for processing referrals, implementation of placements, responsibilities of sending agencies, and penalties for illegal placements.
ICAMA and Medicaid: Understanding the COBRA Option and COBRA Reciprocity
Explains ICAMA and the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985 (COBRA) reciprocity, which allows States to extend Medicaid benefits to children residing in the State who receive State-funded adoption assistance from another State. The article includes criteria for determining whether a child can receive Medicaid in an interstate case.
Interstate Compact on Adoption and Medical Assistance (ICAMA): ICAMA Guidelines for Adoption Workers (PDF - 116 KB)
Association of Administrators of the Interstate Compact on Adoption and Medical Assistance (2007)
Describes an assessment instrument designed to guide adoption workers through the requirements of ICAMA.
National Resource Center for Diligent Recruitment at AdoptUSKids
Provides tools and resources to help agencies embrace interstate, also known as interjurisdictional, placements as an option for achieving permanency. Materials include checklists for sending and receiving States, information about the two interstate compacts for adoption and foster care, training and free consulting services for public agencies, and more. This website also offers an Interstate Placements: Ideas from the Field section.
Medicaid and the Intersection of Federal and State Law: ICPC and ICAMA (PDF - 90 KB)
Association for the Administrators of the Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children
Describes the ICPC and ICAMA, and explains how Medicaid is provided when a child moves across State lines through adoption.
National Electronic Compact Enterprise (NEICE)
Association of Administrators of the Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children
Explains an electronic information-sharing system designed to decrease the amount of time it takes to place children across state lines and how states can participate. Launched in 2013 as a Children’s Bureau funded pilot project, the NEICE project is expanding nationwide with the goal of serving all states.
Safeguarding Interstate Adoptions: The Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children (PDF - 87 KB)
Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute (2005)
Outlines issues relevant to the improvement of the ICPC system and the development of solutions for facilitating interjurisdictional placements for children.
Assessment of the Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children (PDF - 431 KB)
Texas Court Improvement Program (2008)
Provides an analysis of current law, practices, and procedures used by the referring agency and courts, as well as legal and practical barriers to safe and timely placement. The report attempts to pinpoint specific problems in the system and consider solutions.
205: Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children
Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center, Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program (2012)
Offers a 2-day training curriculum for Pennsylvania child welfare workers on ICPC.