While technology has made it easier to find families for children across the country, interjurisdictional issues can have an impact on planning and achieving permanency across State lines. This section provides resources about the Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children (ICPC), which establishes procedures for ensuring the safety and stability of placements across State lines; the National Electronic Interstate Compact Enterprise (NEICE), a national electronic system that enables the exchange of information that is required by the ICPC; and the Interstate Compact on Adoption and Medical Assistance (ICAMA), which ensures continuity of adoption assistance payments for children in interjurisdictional placements.
- ICPC and NEICE resources
- ICAMA resources
- Legal and court issues regarding interjurisdictional placements
- State and local examples
Interstate Issues in Adoption Assistance: What Happens When You Adopt From Another State or Move After Your Adoption?
North American Council on Adoptable Children (2017)
Offers guidance on adopting children from another State, including information on monthly maintenance payments, non-recurring adoption expenses, Medicaid eligibility, and ICAMA. The webpage also defines terms related to interstate adoption.
Making Interjurisdictional Placements
Provides publications and webinars related to case work practice in foster care and adoptive interjurisdictional placements that cover topics such as agency readiness, common barriers and suggestions to address them, and checklists of things to consider when sending or receiving children from another State.
State Statutes Search
Child Welfare Information Gateway
Provides summaries of State statutes for prospective parents considering the adoption of a child from another State, including issues related to child abuse and neglect, child welfare, and adoption.
Understanding Interstate Adoption
Provides information and resources on the laws and process surrounding interstate adoption, including information on ICPC, ICAMA, NEICE, benefits eligibility, and the steps involved in facilitating adoptions.
Association of Administrators of the Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children (AAICPC)
Provides national and State-level information on ICPC, including frequently asked questions, articles, and regulations.
The Effects of the Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children on the Permanency of Children in Foster Care (PDF - 1,208 KB)
Outlines findings from a project that sought to gain a better understanding of ICPC issues by obtaining data from 27 States. Each State answered questions about the number of children affected, the types of placements that are most commonly impacted, how long home studies take, why and how frequently are potential placements denied following home studies, and how home study denials can be reviewed or appealed.
National Electronic Interstate Compact Enterprise (NEICE)
American Public Human Services Association
Provides an overview of NEICE, results from the first NEICE pilot study, information for States on how to join NEICE, and additional resources and training materials for implementation.
National Electronic Interstate Compact Enterprise (NEICE) Evaluation Final Report
Rosinsky, Hanson, & Vandivere (2018)
Presents the results of a multi-year evaluation that examined the implementation efforts, costs, interoperability, and sustainability of NEICE. The report concludes with key findings and recommendations for future implementations.
Transforming the Adoptive and Foster Care Placements of Children Through the National Electronic Interstate Compact Enterprise Webinar
National American Council on Adoptable Children (2015)
Discusses the results from the pilot implementation of NEICE across States to improve outcomes for children by processing interjurisdictional placements more quickly and efficiently.
Unregulated Custody Transfer/Re-homing of Adopted Children (PDF - 428 KB)
Capacity Building Center for States (2016)
Provides tips for child welfare professionals about unregulated transfers of custody (UCT)—or "rehoming"—including definitions and information about risk of harm, intake screening questions, Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children violations, challenges with recognizing UCT, special concerns of intercountry adoptions, and prevention of UCT/postadoption services support.
Adoption Assistance by State
Association of Administrators of the Interstate Compact on Adoption and Medical Assistance & Child Welfare Information Gateway
Provides answers to 13 questions regarding State policies on adoption assistance and State contacts for adoption, postadoption, and medical assistance.
Association of Administrators for the Interstate Compact on Adoption and Medical Assistance (AAICAMA)
Provides information about ICAMA for State and local child welfare agency staff. The site is designed to help agencies work with families that have an adoption assistance agreement and move across State lines.
Building Bridges Across State Lines: The Interstate Compact on Adoption & Medical Assistance [Video]
National Resources Center for Diligent Recruitment at AdoptUSKids (2017)
Provides States with information on ICAMA, including when and how to utilize ICAMA in interjurisdictional placements, as well as answers several related questions from the webinar’s participants.
The Interstate Compact for the Placement of Children and the National Electronic Interstate Compact Enterprise (PDF - 952 KB)
National Center for State Courts
Provides guidance for courts on the NEICE–ICPC process, including six steps courts can take to improve the timeliness of ICPC cases.
Interstate Compact for Placement of Children
National Center for State Courts
Provides an overview and history of the ICPC, the position of the National Center for State Courts on ICPC, and statues related to interjurisdictional placements.