These resources provide information about more restrictive services for children and youth in out-of-home care known as intensive residential and/or secure treatment.
Children in Foster Care: Before, During, and After Psychiatric Hospitalization
Persi & Sisson (2008)
Child Welfare, 87(4)
Evaluates characteristics of foster children admitted to psychiatric hospitals, including a distinctive pattern of service use.
Containment and Holding Environments: Understanding and Reducing Physical Restraint in Residential Child Care
Children and Youth Services Review, 32(1)
Describes a Scottish study of the views of residential care staff and inpatient youth affected by physical restraint.
Effects of Multiple Maltreatment Experiences Among Psychiatrically Hospitalized Youth
Boxer & Terranova (2008)
Child Abuse and Neglect, 32(3)
Examines the extent to which different forms of maltreatment may account for variations in youths' emotional and behavioral problems. The study used information collected routinely during intake assessments at a secure inpatient psychiatric facility.
Entry Into Residential Care by Clinical and Non-Clinical Characteristics Among Youth in State Custody (PDF - 174 KB)
Children and Family Research Center (2008)
Examines the extent and correlates of entry into residential care among 672 children and adolescents in State custody who experienced a psychiatric crisis.
Intensive Home-Based Services Within a Comprehensive System of Care for Youth
Daleiden, Pang, Roberts, Slavin, & Pestle (2010)
Child and Family Studies, 19(3)
Examines use of intensive, home-based services to avoid further, more restrictive services.
Lessons Learned From 30-Plus Years of No Physical Intervention
In For Our Own Safety: Examining the Safety of High-Risk Interventions for Children and Young People
Describes how the Arc of Delaware County, a nonprofit community-based rehabilitation agency, serves individuals with challenging behaviors from the community and from institutions without the use of physical restraints. The chapter includes recommendations.
Out-of-Home Services for Emotional or Behavioral Problems Among Youths Aged 12 to 17: 2002 to 2006
Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2008)
Presents results from a survey to examine the use of out-of-home mental health services among youths aged 12 to 17.
Perspectives on Residential and Community-Based Treatment for Youth and Families (PDF - 114 KB)
Magellan Health Services, Children's Services Task Force (2008)
Responds to concerns about the reliance on residential treatment for children and adolescents with serious emotional disturbance and the underuse of evidence-based alternative treatments.
Residential Group Care
Child Welfare League of America
Provides information on the types of residential care programs, their characteristics, and a link to Child Welfare League of America's Residential Group Care Quarterly archives.
Staff Perspectives of Precipitants to Aggressive Behavior of Adolescents in Residential Treatment Facilities
DosReis & Davarya (2008)
Residential Treatment for Children & Youth, 25(2)
Presents findings from interviews with 18 staff in public psychiatric adolescent residential treatment facilities to gather a better understanding of what may lead to aggressive behavior among adolescents.
Using Staff Training to Decrease the Use of Restrictive Procedures at Two Facilities for Foster Care Children
Crosland, Cigales, Dunlap, Neff, Clark, & Giddings (2008)
Research on Social Work Practice, 18(5)
Suggests that training direct care staff personnel, including social workers, in positive behavioral strategies might reduce staff use of restrictive procedures and result in fewer injuries to both children and staff.