Numerous studies have documented the physical, social, psychological, and developmental problems that present in children who have been abused or neglected by caregivers. The following resources explain the consequences of different types of maltreatment. Keep in mind that children may experience multiple types of maltreatment.
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Child Welfare Information Gateway.
Download (PDF - 485KB)
Failure to Thrive as a Manifestation of Child Neglect (PDF - 57 KB)
American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Child Abuse and Neglect, Committee on Nutrition
Pediatrics, 116(5), 2005
Focuses on the consideration, evaluation, and management of failure to thrive when child neglect may be present, including the notification of child protective services agencies.
Impact of Neglect
Children's Bureau (HHS) User Manual Series (2006)
In Child Neglect: A Guide for Prevention, Assessment, and Intervention
Addresses the impact of neglect on physical, intellectual, emotional, and social development.
Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Work Outcomes (PDF - 2990 KB)
Lee & Tolman
Social Work Research, 30(2), 2006
Explores the relationship among childhood sexual abuse, physical and mental health work barriers, and employment outcomes using a large panel study of current and former welfare recipients.
Developmental Consequences of Childhood Sexual Abuse
Vigil & Geary (2008)
In Child Sexual Abuse: Issues and Challenges
Examines the potential impact of childhood sexual abuse on development based on a meta-theoretical framework.
The Impact of Sexual Abuse on Female Development: Lessons From a Multigenerational, Longitudinal Research Study (PDF - 605 KB)
Trickett, Noll, & Putnam
Development and Psychopathology, 23, 2011
Discusses the impact of sexual abuse on girls aged 6â€“16 years and how psychological factors impact their development.
The Impact of Sexual Abuse in the Lives of Young Women Involved or at Risk of Involvement With the Juvenile Justice System
Goodkind, Ng, & Sarri
Violence Against Women, 12, 2006
Analyzes young females at risk of being involved in the juvenile justice system to determine the relationship between previous sexual abuse and placement in the system.
Long-Term Physical Health Consequences of Childhood Sexual Abuse
Irish, Kobayashi, & Delahanty
Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 35(5), 2010
Presents results of a literature review that found individuals with a history of childhood sexual abuse reported more complaints in each of the six health outcomes studied. The review concludes with potential avenues for future research.
Prevalence of Childhood Sexual Abuse Among Incarcerated Males in County Jail
Ross, Taylor, Williams, Carvajal, & Peters
Child Abuse & Neglect: The International Journal, 30(1), 2006
Reports on the prevalence of sexual abuse among men in prison in the State of Texas.
The Role of Depression and Dissociation in the Link Between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Later Parental Practices
Collin-Vezina, Cyr, Pauze, & McDuff
Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 6(1), 2005
Explores the link between child sexual abuse and maternal parenting, while taking into account mothers' childhood physical and emotional traumas and current depressive and dissociative symptoms.
Physical Child Abuse and Adolescent Violent Delinquency: The Mediating and Moderating Roles of Personal Relationships
Salzinger, Rosario, & Feldman
Child Maltreatment, 12(3), 2007
Examines the role of personal relationships in reducing delinquency for adolescents who have been physically abused.
Adolescent Outcome of Physically Abused Schoolchildren: NDACAN Dataset Number 117, User's Guide and Codebook (PDF - 1260 KB)
Miller, Wach, & Salzinger (2008)
Identifies important factors influencing the path from preadolescent abuse to adolescent outcomes and target possible points where intervention in childhood might avert some of abuse's costly individual and social consequences. The study looked at results over categories of behavior, emotional disorders, quality of relationships, risky behavior, and delinquency.
Brief Communication: Physical Abuse of Boys and Possible Associations With Poor Adult Outcomes
Holmes & Sammel
Annals of Internal Medicine, 143, 2005
Reports on results that found childhood physical abuse was associated later in life with depression symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, legal troubles, and incarceration.
Early Physical Abuse and Later Violent Delinquency: A Prospective Longitudinal Study
Lansford, Miller-Johnson, Berlin, Dodge, Bates, & Petit
Child Maltreatment, 12(3), 2007
Studies the links between early physical abuse and violent delinquency and other socially relevant outcomes during late adolescence or early adulthood and the extent to which a child's race and gender moderate these links.
Long-Term Physical and Mental Health Consequences of Childhood Physical Abuse: Results From a Large Population-Based Sample of Men and Women
Springer, Sheridan, Kuo, & Carnes
Child Abuse and Neglect: The International Journal, 31(5), 2007
Examines how childhood physical abuse, with the effects of family background and childhood adversities, affects mid-life mental and physical health.
Physical Punishment, Childhood Abuse, and Psychiatric Disorders
Afifi, Brownridge, Cox, & Sareen
Child Abuse and Neglect: The International Journal, 30(10), 2006
Compares the experience of physical punishment with child abuse to determine its effect on adult depression, alcohol abuse, and other psychological problems.
The Developmental Consequences of Child Emotional Abuse: A Neurodevelopmental Perspective (PDF - 130 KB)
Studies the impact of emotional abuse on a child's stress response system and its developmental consequences.
American Humane Association
Presents the definition and consequences of emotional abuse and what can be done about it.
Sticks, Stones, and Hurtful Words: Relative Effects of Various Forms of Childhood Maltreatment
Teicher, Samson, Polcari, & McGreenery
American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(6), 2006
Examines the impact of parental verbal aggression, witnessing domestic violence, physical abuse, and sexual abuse, by themselves and in combination, on psychiatric symptoms.