Child Neglect: A Guide for Prevention, Assessment and Intervention.
Office on Child Abuse and Neglect, Children's Bureau. DePanfilis, Diane.|
|Year Published: 2006|
Child Neglect: A Guide for Prevention, Assessment, and Intervention: D link: Exhibit 2-1, Victimization Rates by Maltreatment Type, 2000-2004
This bar graph illustrates the victimization rates per 1,000 children by maltreatment type during the years of 2000-2004. Neglect is the most common form of maltreatment throughout that period, with an average of 7-8 incidents per 1000 (including medical neglect). That is the same rate as for all the other forms of treatment combined.
Child Neglect: A Guide for Prevention, Assessment, and Intervention: D link: Exhibit 2-2, Fatalities by Type of Maltreatment, 2004
This bar graph illustrates the percentage of child fatalities by maltreatment type for the year 2004. More children died due to neglect only (including medical neglect) than by other maltreatment types.
Neglect only (includes medical neglect only), 36.9 percent
Physical abuse only, 28.3 percent
Multiple maltreatment types, 30.2 percent
Sexual abuse only, 0.8 percent
Psychological maltreatment only, other only, or unknown, 3.9 percent
Child Neglect: A Guide for Prevention, Assessment, and Intervention: D link: Exhibit 4-1, Conceptual Model of Child Neglect
This graphic illustrates the interplay of five sets of risk and protective factors for child neglect. Situational risk factors are linked to enduring risk factors, which, in turn is then linked to enduring protective factors, underlying risk factors, and underlying protective factors. Each of these four sets of factors is then interconnected to each other. The factors listed in each of the sets are as follows:
Situational risk factors
Acute life stress
Acute mental health and physical health crisis
Acute school problems
Acute family relationship conflict
Enduring risk factors
Child behavior, mental health, or physical health problems
Caregiver mental health or physical health problems
Impaired caregiver-child relationship
Enduring protective factors
Family system strengths
Supportive caregiver-child relationship
Readiness for change
Underlying risk factors
Caregiver childhood adversity
Violence in community
Underlying protective factors
Child Neglect: A Guide for Prevention, Assessment, and Intervention: D link: Exhibit 5-1, Overview of Child Protective Services Process
This flow chart outlines the child protective services (CPS) process. The following is a list of the steps in the process, along with what action occurs during each step, if the case were to be substantiated and proceed through all the steps. An explanation of other paths a case can follow (e.g., the report is screened out or is unsubstantiated) is then presented.
Step 1: Identification. Recognize signs of child abuse or neglect.
Step 2: Reporting. Contact designated agency (CPS or law enforcement). Provide information on suspected maltreatment.
Step 3: Intake. Determine whether report meets statutory and agency guidelines. Decide whether to investigate. Assess urgency of response to request.
Step 4: Initial Assessment or Investigation. Contact child and family, and gather information. Determine whether maltreatment occurred. Assess safety of child and need for emergency removal or services. Assess risk of future abuse or neglect.
Step 5: Family Assessment. Identify family strengths and needs. Assess factors contributing to risk of maltreatment.
Step 6: Planning. Specify outcomes and goals that will reflect reduction or elimination of risk of maltreatment. Identify strategies or services to achieve goals and outcomes. Develop case plans, permanency plans, and other plans. Set time frames.
Step 7: Service Provision. Provide in-home services (e.g., family preservation, parenting education). Provide out-of-home services (e.g., foster care, reunification services).
Step 8: Evaluation of Family Progress. Assess safety of child and reduction of risks. Evaluate achievement of family outcomes, goals, and tasks. Review progress and need for continued services.
Step 9: Case Closure. Assess levels of safety and risk. Determine whether family can protect the child without further CPS services.
When a case is not accepted (screened out) or followed to closure, there are other steps or ways to move through the process:
At Step 3, Intake, a case is screened in or out. If it is screened in, it continues to Step 4, Initial Assessment or Investigation. If it is screened out, the family may receive a referral for services and then have the case closed, or CPS may close the case without referring the family for services. Additionally, CPS may refer the family to services at case closure even if the case had originally been screened in.
After Step 4, Initial Assessment or Investigation, the case is either substantiated/indicated or unsubstantiated/ruled out. If the case is substantiated, then it proceeds to Step 5, Family Assessment. If the case is unsubstantiated, then the case is closed.
At Step 8, Evaluation of Family Progress, the case can either proceed to Step 9, Case Closure, or the family can receive continued services by returning to Step 6, Planning, or to Step 7, Service Provision.
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