Outcomes for Emancipated Youth
Findings from studies about outcomes for youth who have emancipated from, or aged out of, out-of-home care. Outcomes generally are not very positive for these youth and reinforce the need to help youth in out-of-home care find permanent families.
Challenges in the Transition to Adulthood for Youth in Foster Care, Juvenile Justice, and Special Education (PDF - 146 KB)
Foster & Gifford
Network on Transitions to Adulthood: Policy Brief, (15), 2004
Examines how youth fare over time given the special challenges they face, paying particular attention to the effectiveness of programs designed to support them during their transition.
Chapin Hall Center for Children
A research and development center focusing on policies, practices, and programs affecting outcomes for children.
Connected by 25: Improving the Life Chances of the Country's Most Vulnerable 14-24 Year Olds (PDF - 325 KB)
Wald & Martinez (2003)
Describes the characteristics and needs of disconnected youth; discusses the failure of public policy to provide a system of support for young adults who do not have access to assistance from families, friends, and communities; and addresses barriers to independence.
Employment Outcomes for Youth Aging Out of Foster Care
Goerge, Bilaver, Lee, & Needell (2002)
Analyzed data from foster youth in California, Illinois, and South Carolina and compared them to youth who were reunified with their families and youth from low-income families who received welfare assistance during their adolescence to determine employment outcomes.
Extending Transitional Services to Former Foster Children
Kerman, Barth, & Wildfire
Child Welfare, 83(3), 2004
Describes what a private agency expended while addressing the transitional needs of former long-term foster youth and examines the association between expenditures and adult outcomes.
Hispanic and African American Youth: Life After Foster Care Emancipation
Iglehart & Becerra
Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work, 11(1/2), 2002
A qualitative study of former foster care youth that attempts to capture the hardships, isolation, hope, and despair many of them may face as they attempt to adjust to life after foster care.
Midwest Evaluation of the Adult Functioning of Former Foster Youth: Outcomes at Age 19
Courtney, Dworsky, Ruth, Keller, & Havlicek (2005)
Presents results from a longitudinal study of youth in Iowa, Wisconsin, and Illinois, comparing outcomes of those still in care at age 19 to the outcomes of discharged youth. Suggests that discharged youth fare worse than their same-age peers across a variety of domains.
On Their Own: What Happens to Kids When They Age Out of the Foster Care System?
Shirk, Stangler, & Carter (2004)
Describes the challenges faced by youth who moved from foster care to independence in cities across the country; illustrates the need for family and informal support networks, preparation for household and financial management, and youth participation in planning; and presents specific strategies, including helping youth enter and remain in college, promoting part-time work and other resources for employment, and increasing access to Medicaid.
Outcomes for Young Adults Who Experienced Foster Care
Kerman, Wildfire, & Barth
Children and Youth Services Review, 24(5), 2002
Highlights the role of extending support during the critical transition through young adulthood by providing a brief review of adult outcome literature and discussing the results from a follow-up study of foster children for whom reunification was not planned.
Promoting Youth Development and Independent Living Services for Youth in Foster Care
In Child Welfare for the Twenty-First Century: A Handbook of Practices, Policies, and Programs
Discusses efforts to promote a positive youth development approach in foster care, and the disappointing outcomes and barriers experienced by young people leaving the foster care system between the ages of 18 and 21.Includes standards for transition, independent living, and self-sufficiency services.
The Transition to Adulthood: Characteristics of Young Adults Ages 18 to 24 in America (PDF - 1340 KB)
Annie E. Casey Foundation (2005)
Provides a demographic overview of the status of young adults with particular attention to outcomes associated with the transition to adulthood that include citizenship, educational achievement, disconnectedness, employment, and military service, as well as measures of family and household formation.
Youth Who "Age Out" of Foster Care: Troubled Lives, Troubling Prospects (PDF - 105 KB)
Analyzes why some adolescents are still in foster care as they reach adulthood; considers racial and ethnic disparities and the common traits and circumstances characterizing children who enter the child welfare system; and provides implications for public policy and strategies for pursuing goals designed to reduce the numbers and help youth overcome the difficulties they face.