Parents who can cope with the stresses of everyday life, as well an occasional crisis, have resilience; they have the flexibility and inner strength necessary to bounce back when things are not going well. Multiple life stressors, such as a family history of abuse or neglect, health problems, marital conflict, or domestic or community violence—and financial stressors such as unemployment, poverty, and homelessness—may reduce a parent's capacity to cope effectively with the typical day-to-day stresses of raising children.
Parental Resilience (PDF - 265 KB)
Center for the Study of Social Policy (2008)
Explains this protective factor and how early care and education programs contribute to parental resilience.
A Technical Assistance Sampler on Protective Factors (Resiliency) (PDF - 851 KB)
Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA (2006)
Contains a sample of resources and links discussing protective factors and resiliency; fostering resilience is presented as requiring a focus on policy and environmental changes.
Offers links to research and a library of online resources about resilience.
Building Resilience: The Power to Cope With Adversity (PDF - 292 KB)
ZERO TO THREE (2010)
Discusses how early childhood professionals can identify strengths and resources to help parents and young children foster resilience.
Collaborative Partnerships Between Early Care and Education and Child Welfare: Supporting Infants, Toddlers, and Their Families Through Risk to Resilience (PDF - 1,740 KB)
United States Department of Health and Human Services & Administration for Children and Families (2011)
Describes strategies to link child welfare and early childhood education (ECE) programs to support protective factors for vulnerable families and prevent and mitigate significant early childhood risk. Includes information regarding capacity building, referral and service coordination, and opportunities for ECE-child welfare partnerships under national and local approaches.
Developing Resilience and Strengthening Families (PDF - 3,542 KB)
Virginia Department of Social Services & James Madison University Department of Psychology (2011)
Virginia Child Protection Newsletter, 93
Discusses resilience in parents and children, risk and protective factors for resilience, the vulnerability of unmarried mothers, and characteristics of strong families. This issue also highlights family strengthening strategies and reports findings from the Fragile Families Study.
Efficacy and Social Support as Predictors of Parenting Stress Among Families in Poverty (PDF - 250 KB)
Raikes & Thompson
Infant Mental Health Journal, 26(3), 2005
Study found that high self-efficacy and fewer family risk factors help reduce parenting stress levels for families in poverty.
Ensuring Military Families Are the Best They Can Be: Strengthening Families to Prevent Child Abuse and Neglect
Children's Voice, 20(4)
Emphasizes the need to support and strengthen military families and build parental resilience to reduce instances of child abuse and neglect. The development of a survey to help prevention programs assess and measure their success is then discussed.
Fostering Family Resiliency: A Review of the Key Protective Factors
Benzies & Mychasiuk
Child and Family Social Work, 14(1), 2009
Identifies 24 protective factors that contribute to family resiliency and provides a foundation for strength-based family interventions.
Handbook of Family Resilience
Explores how resilient families adapt and adjust and includes discussions related to the evaluation of a family resilience focus, a consideration of methodological issues when attempting to study family resilience, and ramifications of and approaches related to the inclusion of family resilience in clinical practice. Family resilience relative to stepfamilies, military marriages, parenting, at-risk youth, and high-risk situations also is discussed
The Nurturing Parenting Programs and the Six Protective Factors: The Effectiveness of Theory, Research and Practice for the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect (PDF - 1,475 KB)
Bavolek & Rogers (2012)
Describes the Nurturing Parenting Programs to help families who have come to the attention of social services for child abuse and neglect and program efforts to build six critical protective factors in families. Information on the history and development of the protective factors, statistics on the Nurturing Parenting Programs, the identification of abusive and neglectful parenting practices, and the development of the Nurturing Parenting Programs and assessment also are included.
Research Profile. Number 3, Parents Anonymous Evidence Supports the Strengthening Families Approach (PDF - 170 KB)
Pion-Berlin, Williams, Polinsky, & Pickens (2011)
Highlights how the research on the effectiveness of Parents Anonymous Programs to prevent child abuse and neglect provides valuable evidence for the Strengthening Families approach, including the protective factors and mutual support groups for children and parents, and provides research findings from evaluation studies on Parents Anonymous groups.
Resilience in Parenting Among Young Mothers: Family and Ecological Risks and Opportunities
Easterbrooks, Chaudhuri, Bartlet, & Copeman (2011)
Children and Youth Services Review, 33(1)
Examines resilient functioning in parenting among young mothers within the context of risks from their childhood histories and current economic and neighborhood conditions.