Ethical practice in intercountry adoption is imperative. Concerns about large amounts of Western money offered in poor countries or corrupt government/adoption practices in some may result in practices by unscrupulous intermediaries to buy, coerce, or kidnap children away from birth families who would have otherwise raised them to adulthood. In this section find resources on ethics relating to intercountry adoptions.
A Case for Ethical Intercountry Adoption (PDF - 250 KB)
Zappala & Johnson
Adoption Advocate, 011, April, 2009
Reviews the history of intercountry adoption in the United States and addresses some criticisms of intercountry adoption.
Fraud and Corruption in International Adoptions
Schuster Institute for Investigative Journalism, Brandeis University
Investigates corruption and fraud in intercountry adoption, providing a compilation of source documents, independent research, government materials, news articles, and other relevant resources.
Adoption Today, 12(11), 2010
View Abstract and Document
Notes unethical practices of some agencies involved in international adoption and emphasizes the need for prospective adoptive parents to diligently research the agencies and countries they are considering before signing a contract.
Independent Adoption: Implications for Parents and Providers Under Hague Intercountry Adoption Act and Regulations (PDF - 107 KB)
Parents for Ethical Adoption Reform (PEAR)
Recommends that prospective adoptive parents adhere to the Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption regulations and requirements when pursuing an independent intercountry adoption.
Intercountry Adoption and Poverty: A Human Rights Analysis (PDF - 276 KB)
Explores the question of whether intercountry adoption is an effective, appropriate, or ethical response to poverty in developing nations.
Intercountry Adoption in Emergencies: The Tsunami Orphans (PDF - 119 KB)
Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute (2005)
Articulates best practices which incorporate both immediate and long-term needs of children left without parental care -- such as protection, family reunification, community and family solutions, permanency, and respect for culture.
Membership Policies (PDF - 53 KB)
Joint Council on International Children's Services (JCICS)
Provides JCICS Standards of Practice, designed to protect the rights of children, birth parents, and adoptive parents, for members and affiliates.
Red Thread or Slender Reed: Deconstructing Professor Bartholet's Mythology of International Adoption (PDF - 242 KB)
Oreskovic & Maskew
Buffalo Human Rights Law Review, 14, 2008
Provides a rebuttal to "International Adoption: Thoughts on Human Rights Issues."
Russian Adoption -- Lessons for Social Workers
Social Work Today, 10(5), 2010
Discusses special challenges facing parents and children involved with intercountry adoptions and what social workers can learn from them.